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Gugatan Perdata Terhadap Para Koruptor

Oleh
Ikhwan fahrojih dan M. Jodi Santoso

Korupsi tidak saja merusak sendi-sendi kehidupan berbangsa, namun telah merampas hak-hak ekonomi, sosial, pendidikan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat yang pemenuhannya merupakan cita-cita bernegara (staatsidee) seperti termaktub dalam pembukaan UUD 1945 alenia Keempat. Secara kongnitif dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh korupsi disadari oleh seluruh anak bangsa, namun dalam praktek masih terus saja berlangsung bahkan semakin meluas. Perlahan tapi pasti, praktik korupsi tidak hanya dilakukan elit pusat namun telah menjalar ke berbagai daerah. Pada sisi lain, upaya hukum pemberantasan korupsi belum berjalan maksimal. Salah satu permasalah yang puncul dalam penegakan hukum adalah bagaimana pengembalian uang negara (asset recovery) uang negara yang dikorupsi.


Secara teoritik korupsi bermula ketika kekuasaan tersentral di tangan presiden dan kroni-kroninya, sementara lembaga negara lain yang seharusnya berfungsi sebagai kekuatan penyeimbang tidak berdaya dan ju…

The Athenian Constitution (By Aristotle)

By Aristotle (Written 350 B.C.E)

Translated by Sir Frederic G. Kenyon

Provided by The Internet Classics Archive.
Available online at at http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.1.1.html


Section 1

Part 1

...[They were tried] by a court empanelled from among the noble families, and sworn upon the sacrifices. The part of accuser was taken by Myron. They were found guilty of the sacrilege, and their bodies were cast out of their graves and their race banished for evermore. In view of this expiation, Epimenides the Cretan performed a purification of the city.


Part 2

After this event there was contention for a long time between the upper classes and the populace. Not only was the constitution at this time oligarchical in every respect, but the poorer classes, men, women, and children, were the serfs of the rich. They were known as Pelatae and also as Hectemori, because they cultivated the lands of the rich at the rent thus indicated. The whole country was in the hands of a few persons…

La Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen (France 1789)

Préambule

Les représentants du peuple français, constitués en Assemblée nationale,

considérant que l’ignorance, l’oubli ou le mépris des droits de l’homme sont les seules causes des malheurs publics et de la corruption des gouvernements, ont résolu d’exposer, dans une déclaration solennelle, les droits naturels, inaliénables et sacrés de l’homme,

afin que cette déclaration, constamment présente à tous les membres du corps social, leur rappelle sans cesse leurs droits et leurs devoirs ;
afin que les actes du pouvoir législatif et ceux du pouvoir exécutif, pouvant être à chaque instant comparés avec le but de toute institution politique, en soient plus respectés ;
afin que les réclamations des citoyens, fondées désormais sur des principes simples et incontestables, tournent toujours au maintien de la Constitution et au bonheur de tous.

En conséquence , l’Assemblée nationale reconnaît et déclare, en présence et sous les auspices de l’Etre Suprême, les droits suivants de l’homme et du citoyen :

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citzen (France 1789)

Preamble

The representatives of the French people, formed into a National Assembly, considering that ignorance, neglect or scorn of the rights of man to be the only causes of national misfortunes and the corruption of governments, have resolved to set out, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, unalienable and sacred rights of man,


so that this Declaration, always present to all members of society, reminds them constantly of their rights and their duties;

so that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, being able to be compared at every moment with the aim of the whole political institution, should have greater respect for that aim;

so that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and indisputable principles, are always oriented to conserving the Constitution and to the happiness of everybody.

Consequently , the National Assembly acknowledges and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man an…