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Friday, December 22, 2006

Terima Kasih Ibu, Majulah Perempuan Indonesia

......pengajaran dan pendidikan anak perempuan, bukan untuk menjadi saingan laki-laki. Tapi ....agar wanita lebih cakap melakukan kewajibannya, kewajiban yang diserahkan alam sendiri ke tangannya yaitu menjadi ibu, pendidik manusia yang pertama-tama. [dikutip dari Surat Kartini kepada Prof. Anton dan Nyonya, 4 Oktober 1902]

22 Desember, 78 tahun yang lalu tepatnya pada tahun 1928, para pejuang perempuan Indonesia untuk kali pertama bekumpul dalam sebuah kongres perempuan yang diselenggarakan di Yogyakarta di sebuah gedung yang sekarang dikenal Mandalabhakti Wanitatama. Kongres yang menghasilkan Kongres Wanita Indonesia (KOWANI) ini di anggap sebagai tonggak sejarah perjuangan perempuan Indonesia. Sebagai simbul perjuangan kaum perempuan, Presiden Sukarno melalui Dekrit Presiden Nomor 316 Tahun 1959 menetapkan tanggal 22 Desember sebagai Hari Ibu. Meski demikian, hari itu bukan awal dari pergerakan perempuan Indonesia.


Jauh sebelumnya, muncul sejumlah pejuang pemajuan perempuan Indonesia. R.A. Kartini, misalnya, melalui surat-suratnya telah membuka mata dunia tentang pentingnya memperjuangkan hak perempuan sesuai kodratnya untuk bersama laki-laki memperbaiki kualitas hidup manusia. Tulisan-tulisan emasnya tersebut dikumpulan dalam sebuah buku
yang berjudul Door Duisternis Tot Licht- dari gelap kepada cahaya (diilhami dari Minazh-Zhulumaati ilan Nuur, surah Al-Baqarah ayat 257).

Tinta sejarah juga mencatat nama Dewi Sartika. Pejuang pemajuan perempuan melalui pendirian Sakola Istri (kemudian berubah menjadi Sakola Kautamaan Istri- Sekolah Keutamaan Perempuan) pada tahunn 16 Januari 1904. Atau, Nyai Achmad Dahlan, yang mendirikan pengajian wanita Sopo Tresno (siapa cinta) tahun 1914 yang kini menjadi organisasi Aisyiyah sebuah organisasi perempuan yang terus memperjuangkan hak-hak perempuan di Indonesia hingga saat ini. Atau, deretan nama lain yang tidak kalah kukuhnya memperjuangkan hak perempuan di Indonesia jauh sebelum kemerdekaan.

Rentetan perjuang kaum perempuan tersebut merupakan wujud kesetaraan dan kualitas manusia Indonesia. Peringatan Hari Ibu, bukan untuk sekedar menyanjung dan bersimpuh dikaki ibu. Peringatan 22 Desember juga bukan hanya untuk memuja perempuan atau memanjakannya. Kita (kaum laki-laki dan perempuan) seharusnya menjadikan perempuan sebagai pelaku perubahan. Tidak ada alasan untuk menempatkan perempuan sebagai insan nomor dua. Sinergi positif tanpa membedakan jender lebih dikedepankan untuk pembaruan kualitas manusia di Indonesia.

Terima kasih Ibu, Majulah Perempuan Indonesia

Karena ada ibu, Aku ada.
Karena ibu pula Aku terus berdiri

Bersama perempuan, aku maju
Berjalan beriring bersama menggapai cita

Ibu, engkaulah guru pertamaku
Terima kasih ibu, belaianmu semangat hidupku

Perempuan, engkaulah teman pertamaku
Majulah perempuan, bersamamu untuk mewujudkan citra, cinta, dan cita anak Indonesia

Terima kasih ibu,
Majulah Perempuan Indonesia.

Jakarta, 22 Desember 2006



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Thursday, December 21, 2006

Charter of the OIC (The Organization of the Islamic Conference)

The Representatives of The Kingdom of Afghanistan, the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, the State of the United Arab Emirates, the State of Bahrain, the Republic of Chad, the Arab Republic of Egypt, The Republic of Guinea, the Republic of Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Kuwait, the Republic of Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Republic, Malaysia, the Republic of Mali, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Republic of Niger, the Sultanate of Oman, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the State of Qatar, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Republic of Senegal, the Republic of Sierra Leone, the Somali Republic, the Democratic Republic of Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Republic of Tunisia, the Republic of Turkey, and the Yemen Arab Republic, meeting in Jeddah from 14 to 18 Muharram, 1392H (29 February - 4 March, 1972); (30 members).

REFERRING to the Conference of the Kings and Heads of State and Government of Islamic countries held in Rabat, 9 - 12 Rajab, 1389 (22 - 25 September 1969);
RECALLING the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers held in Jeddah, 15 - 17 Muharram 1390 (23 - 25 March, 1970), and the Second Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers held in Karachi, 27 - 29 Shawal 1390 (26 - 28 December, 1970);
CONVINCED that their common belief constitutes a strong factor for rapprochement and solidarity among Islamic people;
RESOLVED to preserve Islamic spiritual, ethical, social and economic values, which will remain one of the important factors of achieving progress for mankind;
REAFFIRMING their commitment to the United Nations Charter and fundamental Human Rights , the purposes and principles of which provide the basis for fruitful cooperation among all people;
DETERMINED to consolidate the bonds of the prevailing brotherly and spiritual friendship among their people, and to protect their freedom, and the common legacy of their civilization restoring particularly on the principles of justice, tolerance and non-discrimination;
IN THEIR ENDEAVOR to enhance human well-being, progress and freedom everywhere and resolved to unite their efforts in order to secure universal peace which ensures security, freedom and justice for their people and all people throughout the world.
APPROVES the present Charter of the Islamic Conference:-

ARTICLE I
The Islamic Conference:
The Member States do hereby establish the Organization of "The Islamic Conference".


ARTICLE II
Objectives and Principles:
A) Objectives:
The objectives of the Islamic Conference shall be
• to promote Islamic solidarity among Member States;
• to consolidate cooperation among Member States in the economic, social, cultural, scientific and other vital fields of activities, and to carry out consultations among Member States in international organizations;
• to endeavor to eliminate racial segregation, discrimination and to eradicate colonialism in all its forms;
• to take necessary measures to support international peace and security founded on justice;
• to coordinate efforts for the safeguarding of the Holy Places and support of the struggle of the people of Palestine, to help them regain their rights and liberate their land;
• to back the struggle of all Muslim people with a view to preserving their dignity, independence and national rights;
• to create a suitable atmosphere for the promotion of cooperation and understanding among Member States and other countries.
B) Principles:
The Member States decide and undertake that, in order to realize the objectives mentioned in the previous paragraph, they shall be inspired and guided by the following principles:-
• total equality between Member States;
• respect of the right of self-determination, and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Member States;
• respect of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of each Member States;
• settlement of any conflict that may arise by peaceful means such as negotiation, mediation, reconciliation or arbitration;
• abstention from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity, national unity or political independence of any Member States.


ARTICLE III Conference bodies:
The Islamic Conference is made up of:-
1. the Conference of Kings and Heads of State and Government
2. the Conference of Foreign Ministers, and
3. the General Secretariat and Subsidiary Organs.


ARTICLE IV
Conference of Kings and Heads of State:
The Conference of Kings and Heads of State and Government is the supreme authority in the Organization.
The Islamic Summit Conference shall convene periodically, once every three years.
It shall also be held whenever the interest of Muslim Nations warrants it, to consider matters of vital importance to the Muslims and coordinate the policy of the Organization accordingly.


ARTICLE V
Conference of Foreign Ministers:
Conference sessions:

1.
a) The Islamic Conference shall be convened once a year of whenever the need arises at the level of Ministers of Foreign Affairs or their officially accredited representatives. The sessions shall be held in any one of the Member States.

b) An extraordinary session may be convened at the request of any Member State or at the request of the Secretary General, if approved by two-thirds of the Member States. The request may be circulated to all Member States in order to obtain the required approval; and
c) The Conference of Foreign Ministers has the right to recommend the convening of a Conference of Heads of State or Government. The approval can be obtained for such a Conference by circulating the request to all Member States.

2. The Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers shall be held for the following purposes:-
a) To consider the means of implementing the general policy of the Conference.

b) To review progress in the implementation of resolutions adopted at previous sessions.

c) To adopt resolutions on matters of common interest in accordance with the aims and objectives of the Conference set forth in this Charter.

d) To discuss the report of the Financial Committee and approve the budget of the Secretariat General.

e)
1. To appoint the Secretary General.
2. To appoint four Assistants to the Secretary General on recommendation of the Secretary General; (The post of a fourth Assistant Secretary General will be for the cause of Al-Quds Al-Sharif and Palestine), and
In recommending his Assistants, the Secretary General shall duly take competence, integrity and duly take into consideration their dedication to the Charter's objectives as well as the principle of equitable geographical distribution.
f) To fix the date and venue of the coming Conference of Foreign Ministers;
g) To consider any issue affecting one or more of the Member States whenever a request to that effect is made with a view to taking appropriate measures in that respect

3. Resolutions or recommendations of the Conference of Foreign Ministers shall be adopted by a two-third majority.

4. Two-thirds of the Member States in any session of the Conference of Foreign Ministers shall constitute the quorum.

5. The Conference of Foreign Ministers decides on the basic procedures which it follows and which could be good for the Conference of Kings and Heads of State and Government. It appoints a Chairman for each session. This procedure is also applied in subsidiary organs set up by the Conference of Kings and Heads of State and Government and also by the Conference of Foreign Ministers.

ARTICLE VI
The General Secretariat:
1. The General Secretariat shall be headed by a Secretary General appointed by the Foreign Ministers Conference for a period of four years renewable once only.
2. The Secretary General shall appoint the staff of the General Secretariat from amongst nations of Member States, paying due regard to their competence and integrity, and in accordance with the principle of equitable geographical distribution.
3. In the performance of their duties, the Secretary General, his Assistants, and the staff of the General Secretariat, shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or authority other than the Conference. They shall refrain from taking any action that may be detrimental to their position as international officials responding only to the Conference. Member States undertake to respect this quality and the nature of their responsibilities, and shall not seek to influence them in any way in the discharge of their duties.
4. The Secretariat General shall work to promote communication among Member States and provide facilities for consultations and exchange of views as well as the dissemination of information that may have common significance to these States.
5. The headquarters of the Secretariat General shall be in Jeddah pending the liberation of "Baitul Maqdis" (Jerusalem).
6. The General Secretariat shall follow up the implementation of the resolutions and recommendations of the Conference and report back to the Conference. It shall also directly supply the Member States with working papers and memoranda through appropriate channels, within the framework of the resolutions and recommendations of the Conference.
7. The General Secretariat shall prepare the meetings of the Conference in close cooperation with the host states insofar as administrative and organizational matters are concerned.
8. In the light of the agreement on immunities and privileges to be approved by the Conference:
a) The Conference shall enjoy, in the Member States, such legal capacity, immunities and privileges as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of its objectives.
b) Representatives of Member States shall enjoy such immunities and privileges as may be necessary for the exercise of their functions related to the Conference; and

The Staff of the Conference shall enjoy the immunities and privileges necessary for the performance of their duties as may be decided by the Conference.

ARTICLE VII Finance:
• All expenses on the administration and activities of the Secretariat shall be borne by Member States proportionate to their national incomes.
• The Secretariat shall administer its financial affairs according to the rules of procedure approved by the Conference of Foreign Ministers.
• A Standing Financial Committee shall be set up by the Conference from the accredited representatives of the participating States, and shall meet at the Headquarters of the General Secretariat. This Committee shall in conjunction with the Secretary General, prepare and supervise the budget of the General Secretariat in accordance with the regulations approved by the Conference of Foreign Ministers.
ARTICLE VIII
Membership:
The Organization of the Islamic Conference is made up of the States which took part in the Conference of Kings and Heads of State and Government held in Rabat and the two Foreign Ministers' Conferences held in Jeddah and Karachi, and signatory to the present Charter. Every Muslim State is eligible to join the Islamic Conference on submitting an application expressing its desire and preparedness to adopt this Charter. The application shall be deposited with the General Secretariat, to be brought before the Foreign Ministers' Conference at its first meeting after the submission of the application. Membership shall take effect as of the time of approval of the Conference by a two-third majority of the Conference members.


ARTICLE IX
Islamic Organization:
The General Secretariat shall act within the frame-work of the present Charter with the approval of the Conference to consolidate relations between the Islamic Conference and the Islamic Organizations of international character and to bolster cooperation in the service of the Islamic objectives approved by this Charter.



CHARTER X
Withdrawal:
Any Member State may withdraw from the Islamic Conference by sending a written notification to the Secretariat General, to be communicated to all Member States.

The State applying for withdrawal shall be bound by its obligations until the end of the fiscal year during which the application of withdrawal is submitted. It shall also settle any other financial dues to the Conference.

ARTICLE XI
Amendment:
Amendment to this Charter shall be made, if approved and ratified by a two-third majority of the Member States.

ARTICLE XII
Interpretation:
Any dispute that may arise in the interpretation, application or implementation of any Article in the present Charter shall be settled peacefully, and in all cases through consultations, negotiations, reconciliation or arbitration.

ARTICLE XIII
Language: Languages of the Conference shall be Arabic, English and French.

ARTICLE XIV
Ratification:
This Charter shall be approved and ratified by Member States of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in accordance with the procedure prevailing in their respective countries. This Charter goes into effect as of the date of deposition of the instruments of ratification with the General Secretariat by a simple majority of the States having participated in the Third Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers held in Jeddah from 14 to 18 Muharram 1392 (29 February - 4 March, 1972).
This Charter has been registered in conformity with Article 102 of the United Nation’s Charter on February 1st, 1974.


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THE BILL OF RIGHTS

Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution

The Conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution;
Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution, namely:


Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.


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Wednesday, December 20, 2006

The ASEAN Declaration

The ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration)
Thailand, 8 August 1967

The Presidium Minister for Political Affairs/ Minister for Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand:


MINDFULinterests and common problems among countries of of the existence of mutual South-East Asia and convinced of the need to strengthen further the existing bonds of regional solidarity and cooperation;

DESIRINGfor common action to promote regional cooperation in to establish a firm foundation South-East Asia in the spirit of equality and partnership and thereby contribute towards peace, progress and prosperity in the region;

CONSCIOUSinterdependent world, the cherished ideals of peace, that in an increasingly freedom,,social justice and economic well-being are best attained by fostering good understanding, good neighbourliness and meaningful cooperation among the countries of the region already bound together by ties of history and culture;

CONSIDERINGSouth~East Asia share a primary responsibflity for that the countries of strengtliening the economic and social stability of the region and ensuring their peacefu~l and progressive national development, and that they are determined to ensure their stability and security from external interference in any form or manifestation in order to preserve their national identities in accordance with the ideals and aspirations of their peoples;

AFFIRMINGtemporary and remain only with the expressed that all foreign bases are concurrence of the countries concerned and are not intended to be used directly or indirectly to subvert the national independence and freedom of States in the area or prejudice the orderly processes of their national development;

DO HEREBY DECLARE:

FIRST, the establishment of an Association for Regional Cooperation among the countries of South-East Asia to be known as the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN).

SECOND, that the aims and purposes of the Association shall be:

1. To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of South-East Asian Nations;

2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;

3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;

4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facflities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres;

5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples;

6. To promote South-East Asian studies;

7. To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.

THIRD, that to carry out these aims and purposes, the following machinery shall be established:

(a) Annual Meeting of Foreign Ministers, which shall be by rotation and referred to as ASEAN Ministerial Meeting. Special Meetings of Foreign Ministers may be convened as required.

(b) A Standing committee, under the chairmanship of the Foreign Minister of the host country or his representative and having as its members the accredited Ambassadors of the other member countries, to carry on the work of the Association in between Meetings of Foreign Ministers.

(c) Ad-Hoc Committees and Permanent Committees of specialists and officials on specific subjects.

(d) A National Secretariat in each member country to carry out the work of the Association on behalf of that country and to service the Annual or Special Meetings of Foreign Ministers, the Standing Committee and such other committees as may hereafter be established.

FOURTH, that the Association is open for participation to all States in the South-East Asian Region subscribing to the aforementioned aims, principles and purposes.

FIFTH, that the Association represents the collective will of the nations of South-East Asia to bind themselves together in friendship and cooperation and, through joint efforts and sacrifices, secure for their peoples and for posterity the blessings of peace, freedom and prosperity.

DONE in Bangkok on the Eighth Day of August in the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Sixty-Seven.

diakses dari http://www.asean.or.id/

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Monday, December 04, 2006

Panwas Pemilu Bukan Sekedar Pengawas KPU

Pada Jum’at, 1 Desember 2006 lalu, Perkumpulan untuk Pemilu dan Demokrasi (Perludem) meluncurkan buku yang berjudul Efektivitas Panwas : Evaluasi Pengawasan Pemilu. Salah satu rekomendasi menarik buku tersebut adalah Panwas Pemilu tidak diperlukan dalam pemilu. Hal tersebut menarik karena para peneliti merupakan jebolan Panwas Pemilu 2004 dan kajian banyak disandarkan pada hasil pengawasan Pemilu 2004. Benarkah Pemilu di Indonesia tidak butuh Panitia Pengawas?

Rekomendasi di atas didasarkan pada fakta yang terangkum dalam tiga kesimpulan, yaitu: 1) tugas dan fungsi Panwas Pemilu sama dengan pemantau atau pengamat pemilu yang hanya menghimbau, memprotes terjadinya penyimpangan; 2) Panwas Pemilu hanya sekedar tukang pos yang mengantarkan kasus pelanggaran ke KPU/KPUD dan ke Kepolisian; dan 3) tidak ada sengketa dalam sesungguhnya.

Dalam mengkritisi rekemondasi tersebut, terdapat beberapa catatan ringan tapi mendasar. Pertama, tentang pentingnya pengawasan sebagai fungsi manajemen. Kedua, perlu mempertegas kembali salah satu catatan penting dalam buku tersebut yaitu keberadaan Panwas Pemilu mungkin masih diperlukan mengingat KPU/KPUD harus mempersiapkan diri untuk menangani sendiri pelanggaran administri dan menunggu kepolisian dan kejaksaan dalam menanggani tindak pidan.

Dalam konteks manajemen organisasi, pengawasan merupakan salah satu fungsi utama dalam sebuah manajemen. Ahli manajemen modern seperti Henry Fayol (1949), George R. Terry (1974), Sofyan Syafri Harahap (2004), Harold Koontz, Cyrill O’ Donell, dan Heinz Weihrich (1986) mengatakan hal ini. Secara sederhana fungsi pengawasan dapat di jabarkan sebagai upaya untuk mengukur dan membandingkan pelaksanaan rencana yang telah ditetapkan serta memperoleh bentuk dan potensi penyimpangan dalam pelaksanaan rencana, bahkan dapat melakukan perbaikan serta membantu pencapaian rencana-rencana. Dalam pandangan sederhana ini, Panwas Pemilu 2004 dapat dikatakan telah menjalankan fungsi pengawasan. Pertanyaan selanjutnya adalah Panwas Pemilu sebagai pengawas KPU atau pengawas pelaksanaan pemilu.

Jika melihat ketentuan Pasal 120 UU No 12 Tahun 2003 tentang PEMILIHAN UMUM ANGGOTA DPR, DPD, DAN DPRD yang menyebutkan, untuk melakukan pengawasan pemilu, dibentuk Panwas Pemilu, Panwas Pemilu propinsi hingga kecamatan, maka DPT dikatan tugas dan kewenangan Panwas Pemilu mengawasi (dan ikut) mensukseskan pemilu bukan hanya sekedar mengawasi KPU. Problem pelaksanaan itu muncul ketika Panwas Pemilu dibentuk dan bertanggung jawab pada KPU. Gagasan ideal sebenarnya menempatkan Panwas Pemilu di luar KPU bukan bagian dari KPU. KPU merupakan satu obyek pengawasan Panwas Pemilu. Kondisi demikian dapat dikuatkan dengan peran Panwas Pemilu dalam proses peradilan tindak pidana pemilu (baca catatan kedua). Ambivalensi UU No 12/2003 tersebut merupakan problem yuridis dan merupakan kebijakan hukum yang tidak konsekuen. Hal ini yang seharusnya menjadi pijakan dalam pengambilan kebijakan selanjutnya. Alasan masa lalu yang kita tahu hampir semua disalah gunakan.

Catatan kedua yang penting adalah peran Panwas Pemilu dalam menggantikan peran KPU dan aparat penegak hukum. Dalam konteks sistem peradilan pidana, Panwas Pemilu sudah merupakan bagian dari sistem peradilan tindak pidana pemilu. Dalam khasanah perkembangan ketatanegaraan dan sistem peradilan Indonesia, berdirinya sistem peradilan pidana khusus bukan hal baru di Indonesia. Pernah muncul peradilan ad hoc untuk pelanggaran HAM berat, peradilan korupsi yang menempatkan KPK sebagai penyelidik, penyidik dan penuntut perkara korupsi. Mengapa Panwas Pemilu tidak dikembangkan sebagai lembaga super body dalam penyelesaian pelanggaran tindak pidana pemilu? Apa yang susahnya?............. kan sudah ada GAPKUMDU (Gabungan Penegak Hukum Terpadu) yang tinggal diberi payung hukum. Selesai urusan? ........ dengan demikian tidak perlu menghapus Panwas Pemilu.

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